The Korean Railroad Society held the ART (The 2nd Asian Conference on Railway Engineering and Transportation) 2018 at the Ramada Plaza Jeju Hotel in Jeju Island from October 17th to 19th. ART 2018 (www.acrt2018.org) was held to exchange information between researchers and related workers by presenting academic exchanges and technology development achievements related to the railway and railway industry.
In this international conference, Professor Young-Guk Kwon presented an English paper on the influence of the railroad before and after the direct employment. In this paper, a part of the master 's thesis of Oh-Hyun Kwon, who graduated from the railway department in January, 2018, is summarized in English and published under the joint title entitled "The Impact of Direct Employment on Job Factors and Safety Climate and Safety Behavior".
A Study on the Difference of Safety Relationship between Direct & Outsourced
Professor Young-Guk Kwon paid attention to the following facts and took research topics. On May 28, 2016, the maintenance man worked to repair the platform safety doors at Seoul Metropolitan Subway Line 2 alone, while the outsourcing staff collided with an electric train. After this incident, the city of Seoul stopped contracting for dangerous work. On July 19, 2016, four categories of workers were transfered to and recruited as safety contractors (life-time maintenance contract). He was interested in this fact. However, domestic operation field was to transfer & recruit at January 2017. Surveys conducted by KORAIL and Seoul Metropolitan City on railway facilities maintenance personnel showed that the direct employment of Metro's safety tasks was influenced by three job factors such as job stress, job insecurity, job satisfaction and two safety related factors such as safety climate and safety behavior.
In order to accomplish the purpose of this study, we surveyed the status of outsourcing of direct employment and outsourcing(externalization), domestic public corporations and urban railway corporation. We examined previous studies on five variables, and set hypotheses through setting up key concepts and prior research. The results of 288 respondents were surveyed on the basis of maintenance of Seoul Metro, vehicle maintenance personnel, 3 headquarters of KORAIL metropolitan area, and workers of 5 subcontractors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the difference of consciousness of workers between major variables before and after the direct management of workers who experienced both outsourcing and direct management of Seoul Metro. A comparative analysis was made between the these main variables. The results of this study confirm that workers after direct management are positively perceived to compare before and after direct management in all variables.
In comparison with the KORAIL outsourcing group, all of Seoul Metro 's direct employment group positively perceived the target variables. However, there were no differences with compliance and habits in subcategories of safety behavior and safety communication in subcategories of safety climate.
This direct employment group in Seoul Metro was positively perceived after the direct employment of the safety climate and safety behavior. The higher perception of job security than the outsourcing has a positive effect on the decrease of job stress and it is derived as a result of increasing job satisfaction. This result can be used as an important policy for safety management and the change of employment which affects job and safety related factors.
Special Lecture and Consultation on Human Error
In addition, Professor Young-Guk Kwon conducted a 6-hour lecture on human errors in large corporations. In this lecture, the definition and history of human error are explained in the first, the methodology of human error in the second, case study of human error in the third, prevention measures of human error in the fourth, Behavior-based-Safety (BBS) in the fifth, and last lecture was explained human error and safety culture.
Human error is classified into four types (slip, lapse, mistake, violation) according to James Reason. A slip is a case in which the situation is interpreted properly but the action is not done differently from the intention. Lapse is a case of for getting with the loss of memory and not doing something to do. A mistake is a wrong situation analysis with a wrong target. Violation is a deliberate mistake that is intended, and there are three kinds of violations: routine, situational and exceptional. James Reason left the famous saying “To err is human.”
International disasters by human error include the 1986 United States Challenger Space Shuttle Blast, the 1987 Herald of Free Enterprise of Belgium, and so on. To prevent such human errors, it is possible to identify the causes and causes of the tragedies and serious consequence by using simple methods such as Human Resource Management (CRM) or 4M(Management, Media, Machine, Man) with difficult methodologies such as root cause analysis or Bowtie analysis.
Study on safety and health standards of smart factory
Consultation on behavior-based safety (BBS) and safety culture (SC)
In cooperation with the Korean Occupational Safety and Health (KOSHA), we will conduct research on the safety and health standards of smart factories in 2018, visit the Smart Factory laboratories of the University of France, the Siemens Factory of Ambeck, Germany and the Smart Factory Expo in Munich (Messe 2018). After visiting the smart factories in Korea, we conducted surveys, and obtained results such as the risk assessment of environmental factors and the necessity of legislation on cooperative robots. Through the Bowtie analysis, this smart factory study establishes prevention measures against the three risks and mitigates accidents caused by three threats such as administrative, technical, and human threats. It is necessary to establish an effective countermeasure to be able to do so.
In addition, I am promoting the enhancement of domestic safety through consultation of behavior-based safety(BBS) and safety culture(SC) for large corporations. Unfortunately, the government needs more concern about safety and to put efforts, and the public and professionals are aware that constant efforts to improve safety will be needed over the next 10 years and will work together to create a safety culture through joint efforts. I emphasized that there is a need.
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